Though still a part of the werewolf family, the black werewolf is genetically different from "normal" werewolves.
All normal werewolves share similar traits. During the day they all take human form, unable to take the form of a wolf. By night they all take wolf form, unable to regain human form until the transformation wears off.
All normal werewolves, when in wolf form, have coats that range from brown to gray, some lighter or darker than others. They all enter an insane rage when in wolf form, consumed by an uncontrollable anger and a need to kill.
Black werewolves do not share these traits.
In human form they are just like any other werewolf - seemingly human but with wolf-like instincts. But by night they are different. Unlike regular werewolves, a black werewolf doesn't lose its mind in a psychotic rage. No, these werewolves retain their human mind at all times, making them considerably more clever and thus potentially more dangerous than the average wolf-man.
Black werewolves are called such because they have all-black coats. This darkened pigment is due to a genetic condition caused by a mutation in the werewolf gene. This affects both the creature's pigmentation and the chemical change in the brain that causes the usual rage. Black werewolves don't have this chemical, and thus don't release the chemical during transformation as is usual. This condition resulting from this genetic mutation is called Human Werewolf Syndrome.
Black werewolves are not the only member of the werewolf family to be afflicted with Human Werewolf Syndrome. In extremely rare cases, this genetic mutation takes on a sub-mutation of its own. This sub-mutation causes the pigment darkening to fail completely resulting in a pure-white werewolf, unsurprisingly called "white werewolves".
White werewolves have a special condition of their own. You can read about them on the White Werewolf page.